chicago manual of style 14th edition

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chicago manual of style 14th edition

A separate guide explains the Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System). They do not replace entries found in the References List which contains the bibliographic information required to properly cite your sources. Check with your instructor on what is expected when you are asked to use this style. In it you will find many corresponding or similar documentation patterns. This guide explains the notes system. Inserted at the point of reference, superscripted numbers interact with sequentially numbered footnotes listed at the bottom of a page or endnotes listed at the end of the document. Check with your instructor on what is expected when you are asked to use this style. In it you will find many corresponding or similar documentation patterns. Unlike the MLA and the APA, no parenthetical information is required. All that's needed is a superscripted number: a raised numeral located at the end of a clause or sentence identifying the content as outside source material. There is no space between the punctuation and the numeral. It includes an author tag, or attribute, naming the origin of the source material. It is a list located at the end of a document or book containing all the bibliographic information needed to find out more about cited source material. Each note is called an endnote. In the case of a limited number of citations, footnotes at the bottom of each page may replace the endnotes. Without it the in-text numbers would make little sense as they would no longer be pointing at any corresponding entries in the end documentation. Subsequent lines are flush-left. Each number should be followed by a period and one space. The first line of each entry is flush-left while any subsequent lines are indented five spaces. Book Title- in italics (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013. Group or Corporate Author, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993. First Author-First Name first and Next Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Book Title-in italics, Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education. New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1987. First Author-First Name first, Next Author(s)-First Names first, Book Title-in italics, number ed.-when applicable. (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Martin's, 2003), 116. Next Author(s)-First Names first. Book Title-in italics. Number ed.-when applicable. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. In the bibliography, use the last name first rule for the lead author's name and the first name first rule for all other authors. Separate names with commas. First Author-First Name first, et al., Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Next Author(s)-Initials or First Names first. Book Title-in italics.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Boston: Bedford, 1998. Author-First Name first, ed. or trans. Editor(s) or Translator(s)-First Names first, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Book Title-in italics. Edited or Translated by-First Name(s) first. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Translated by Peter D. Hertz. San Francisco: Harper Collins, HarperSanFrancisco, 1971. First Editor-First Name first, ed(s). Next Editor(s) or Translator(s)-Initials or First Names first, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Living Languages: Contexts for Reading and Writing (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Blair Press, 1997), 351. Next Editor(s) or Translator(s)-Initials or First Names first. ed. or trans. Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Blair Press, 1997. Editor(s) Initials or First Names first, Page Number(s) (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis. John D'Agata, 9-20 (St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 1997. Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics, Numbered ed. or rev. ed. (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics, (Original Publication Year; repr.

, Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of New Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Book Title-in italics. Original Publication Year. Reprint, Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of New Publication-no parenthesis. Folk-Lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. 1923. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press, 1969. Book Title, Chapter: Verse (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year Publication)-in parenthesis, No page Number(s). Authors-First Names first, Multivolume Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Volume Number: Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Number of Multivolume Work Title. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Authors-First Names first, Volume Book Title-in italics, vol. Number of followed by Multivolume Work Title-in italics (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Volume Number: Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Volume Book Title-in italics. Vol. Number of Multivolume Work Title-in Italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1998. Authors-First Names first, Book Title-in italics, Name of Book Series, Editor-if applicable, vol. Number-if applicable. (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Volume Number: Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Book Title-in italics. Name of Book Series. Editor-if applicable, vol. Number-if applicable. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Social Issues in American History Series. Phoenix, AZ: Orynx Press, 1996.

Introduction to Book Title-in italics, by Book Author-First Name first, Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-in parenthesis Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971. In other words, the page numbers run consecutively from issue to issue. Journal Title-in italics Volume Number, Issue Number-if available (Year of Publication): Article Page Number(s). Journal Title-in italics. Volume Number, Issue Number (Year of Publication): Article Page Number(s). Magazine Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication, Article Page Numbers. This case also illustrates a magazine with a volume number but not an issue number. Publication Title-in italics. Day Month Year of Publication, Letters Page Number. Review Author-First Name first, review of Book Title-in italics, by Book Author-First Name first, Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s). Review of Book Title-in italics, by Book Author-First Name first. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication, Page Number(s). New York Times, 10 April 1932, 7. Review Author-First Name first, Review Title-in italics, review of Stage Piece Title-in italics, by Playwright-First Name first, as performed by Theatre Company Name, Location. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation. Review of Dock Brief, by John Mortimer, as performed by the Fremont Centre Theatre, South Pasadena, CA. Los Angeles Times, 31 January 1998, Home Edition, Calendar, 10. Review Title-in italics. Review of Stage Piece Title- in italics, by Playwright-First Name first. Theatre Company Name, Location. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation. Review of Dock Brief, by John Mortimer. Fremont Centre Theatre, South Pasadena, CA. Los Angeles Times, 31 January 1998, Home Edition, Calendar, 10.

Review of Movie Title-in italics (Production Company Name)-in parenthesis, Publication Title- in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation. Fort Collins Coloradoan, 20 November 1998, Ticket Section 7. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation. Los Angeles Times, Home Edition, 27 February 1998, 20. Review of concert performance of Concert Title- in italics, by Name of composer-First Name first, Perfomance Location, Performance Company. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation. Los Angeles Times, Home Edition, 27 February 1998, 20. Author-First Name first, Dissertation Title-in italics (Ph.D. diss., Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted)-in parenthesis, Institution Location: Dissertations Abstracts International information-if appropriate, Page Number(s). Dissertation Title-in italics. Ph.D. diss., Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted-no parenthesis. Institution Location: Dissertations Abstracts International information-if appropriate. A Study of American Literature which Incorporates the Use of the Gullah Dialect (Sea Islands). Ph.D. diss., University of Mississippi, 1991. Master's thesis, Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted. Dissertation Title-in quotation marks. Ph.D. diss., Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted-no parenthesis. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International Volume Number (Volume Date): Page Number(s). Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 53 (1992): 1501A. Description of Document-First Name first if Author included, Document Date, Collection Name, Depository Name, Depository Location. Description of Document including Document Date. Collection Name. Depository Name, Depository Location. Bobbs-Merrill Papers. Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington. Include Collection name, Depository and Location as in the example below.

More specific bibliographic information should appear within the individual citation notes. Columbia, South Carolina. Paper presented at Meeting Name, Location, Month and Year. Interview Subject-First Name first, interview by-First Name first, type of interview, Interview Location, Day Month Year of Interview. Interview by-First Name first, type of interview. Interview Location, Day Month Year of Interview. Fort Collins, CO, 29 September 1998. Author-First Name first to Recipient-First Name first, Day Month Year of Letter, Collection Title- in italics, ed. Editor Name if applicable-First Name first, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages. Letter to Recipient-First Name first, Day Month Year of Letter. Collection Title-in italics, Page Number(s). ed. Editor Name if applicable-First Name first, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, when citing specific portions or quoted passages. In The Habit of Being, Letters Edited and with an Introduction by Sally Fitzgerald, 396. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979; New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Noonday Press, 1995. Include collection name, editor if applicable, Place of Publication: Publisher and Year of Publication as in the example below. More specific bibliographic information should appear within the individual citation notes. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979; New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Noonday Press, 1995. Instead, document these types of sources in your notes with an informal description. The following example is for a non-periodical portable source. The format for a periodical source is slightly different. After the date, include a DOI (digital object identifier) or, if the source does not have a DOI, a stable URL. For a source accessed through a database, include the name of the database and any number assigned to the source.

Print Publication Information. Online Publication Information including Computer Service Name and Accession Number. Note the Italics. Accessed Day Month Year. Available from Source Name: URL link. Medium. Accessed 28 September 1998.Accession Number-or other necessary access information Number of Screens. Available from Source Name, Location. See Chicago Manual of Style for more examples. Composer-First Name first, Composition Title-in italics, (Editing Information when available)-in parenthesis, Orchestra Name, Conductor Name, Recording Company Medium Recording Number. Martin-in-the-Fields, Neville Mariner, London compact disk 417 746-2. Composition Title-in italics. (Editing Information when available-in parenthesis). Orchestra Name. Conductor Name. Recording Company-when available, Medium Recording Number. Requiem Mass, K626. (Edited by Franz Beyer). Academy and Chorus of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. Neville Mariner. London compact disk 417 746-2. Playwright-First Name first, Performance Title-in italics, directed by name, performed by performance artist names-First Names first, Recording Company Recording Number, Medium Performed by Frank Silvera, Celia Johnson, Cyril Cusack, Anna Massey, and others. Caedmon CDG 225. Audiotape. Poet or Prose Writer-First Name first, Recording Title-in italics, read by author or reader name-First Name first, Recording Company Recording Number, Medium Read by author. Caedmon TC1045. Record album. Lecture Recorder-First Name first, Recording Title-in italics, Description of Lecture presented by lecturer name-First Name first at Institution Name, Location, Month Year of Lecture, Publication Information-if applicable. Recording Title-in italics. Description of Lecture presented by lecturer name-First Name first at Institution Name, Location, Month Year of Lecture, Publication Information-if applicable.

In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included. Slide Show Producer-First Name first, Slide Show Title-in italics, (Place of Production: Production Company Name, Year of Production)-in parenthesis, Slides. Slide Show Producer-Last Name first. Slide Show Title-in italics. Place of Production: Production Company Name, Year of Production-no parenthesis. Slides. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included. Film Title-in italics, media format, film length, Production Company, Place of Production: Production Company Name, Year of Production. Media format, film length. Production Company, Place of Production: Production Company Name, Year of Production. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included. Videocassette Title-in italics, Producer and or Director-First Name first, videocassette length, Production Company Name, Year of Production, videocassette. Robert Altman, 108 min., MGM, 1985, videocassette. Videocassette Title-in italics. Directed by Director-First Name first. Videocassette length. Production Company Name, Year of Production. Videocassette. Case Name-in italics, volume of reporter name of reporter opening page of decision, Cited Page Number (Court Name-abbreviated Year of Decision). Congressional Record-in italics, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Volume Number-numeral only, part Number:-abbreviated pt.: Page Number(s)-if appropriate. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year. Volume Number-numeral only, Part Number:-abbreviated pt.: Page Number(s)-if appropriate. Congressional Body Name. Speaker Name and Description of Remarks.

Resolution Number-if appropriate. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Congressional Record-in italics. (Day Mnth. Year), volume number, part number-abbreviated pt.: Page Number(s)-if appropriate. Speaker Name and Description of Remarks. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Congressional Record-in italics. (Day Mnth. Year), volume number, part number-abbreviated pt.: Page Number(s)-if appropriate. Congressional Body or Committee Name, Report or Document Title-in italics, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Document Number, Serial Number-if available, Page Number(s). Report or Document Title-in italics Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year. Document Number. Serial Number-if available. Journal Name-in italics, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year, Page Number(s). Journal Name-in italics. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year. Committee Name, Hearing Title-in italics Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year, Number(s). Hearing Title-in italics. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year. Committee Name, Report Title-in italics, report prepared by name of agency department person(s), Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Committee Print Number, Page Number(s). Report Title-in italics. Report prepared by name of agency department person(s), Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Committee Print Number. Effects and Methods of Control of Thermal Discharges.Bill or Resolution Title-in italics, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Bill or Resolution Number, Congressional Record-in italics record information-if applicable. Bill or Resolution Title-in italics.

Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Bill or Resolution Number. Congressional Record,-in italics record information-if applicable. When they are they should follow this format. Law, Statute or Act Title-in italics, U.S. Code-in italics, Volume Number, Section Number-abbreviated (Year)-in parenthesis. Document Title, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, in Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897. Edited by Name of Editor-First Name First (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Volume Number: Page Number(s). Edited by J.D. Richardson (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907), 4:16. Edited by Name of Editor-First Name First. Volume Number. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Edited by J.D. Richardson. Vol. 10. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907. President-First Name first, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: President-First Name first, Term in Office, vol. Number. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s). Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: President-First Name first, Term in Office. Vol. Number. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Issuing Departmental Body, Document Title-in italics, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s). Document Title-in italics. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives. Attorney-client Privilege and the Right of Congressional Access to Documents for Oversight Purposes in the Case of the Suspension of the Telephone Loan Programs by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1991. Commission Name, Publication Title-in italics, (Washington, D.C.

: GPO, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s). Publication Title-in italics. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication-no parenthesis. Annual Report of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.Day Month Year of Treaty. TIAS Number. Publication Name-in italics. Vol. Number, Part Number-if bound and not microtext. Day Month Year of Treaty. TIAS Number. Publication Name-in italics. Vol. Number, Part Number-if bound and not microtext. Issuing Body, Report Title-in italics, (Place, Year of Report)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s). State or Municipal Name, State Laws or Municipal Compilation Title-in italics, (Editor Name, Year)-in parenthesis, Section Number(s). When a work is of unknown origin, use the first word of its title, excluding definite or indefinite articles which may be transposed to the end of the title. Folk-Lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. 1923. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press, 1969. In such cases, the citation can begin with the title of the work. Both the author name and title must be included in the bibliography. When an author appears consecutively, associated with different titles, a three-em dash (---) may replace the name after the first entry. Indianapolis: (Bobbs-Merrill, 1928), 92. In this case, the format combines both the elements for citing a Book Review with elements for citing a book with one author. The source of the quote itself does not require a bibliographic entry. A shortened version of the note may then be substituted for all non-consecutive citations. Indianapolis: (Bobbs-Merrill, 1928), 56. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. The WAC Clearinghouse. Colorado State University. Available at Some material displayed on this site is used with permission.

This site is published using the Mura CMS and the Lucee open-source CFML platform. Nonetheless, we still incur costs, such as payments to copy editors and designers, software and server costs, and fees associated with obtaining ISBN numbers and DOIs. Please consider supporting our efforts through donations and sponsorships. It is not there for download. Anyone please? If you want the Chicago style manual you'll have to buy one from the publisher or book vendor. I jiust googled it and found this PDF. It is not a manual but you might have to use something like this unless you can get one on amazon used books. cheers And that is available as an endnote output style. See also CMOS (disambiguation). Its 17 editions have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing.The Chicago Manual of Style also discusses the parts of a book and the editing process.It is used widely by academic and some trade publishers, as well as editors and authors who are required by those publishers to follow it. Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations also reflects Chicago style.It allows the mixing of formats, provided that the result is clear and consistent.In both cases, two parts are needed: first, notation in the text, which indicates that the information immediately preceding was from another source; and second, the full citation, which is placed at another location.The third example of the bibliography entry is marked up with color to identify its parts.The 15th edition (2003) was revised to reflect the emergence of computer technology and the internet in publishing, offering guidance for citing electronic works.In a departure from the earlier red-orange cover, the 16th edition features a robin's-egg blue dust jacket (a nod to older editions with blue jackets, such as the 11th and 12th).

An updated appendix on production and digital technology demystified the process of electronic workflow and offered a primer on the use of XML markup. It also includes a revised glossary, including a host of terms associated with electronic and print publishing. The Chicago system of documentation is streamlined to achieve greater consistency between the author-date and notes-bibliography systems of citation, making both systems easier to use. In addition, updated and expanded examples address the many questions that arise when documenting online and digital sources, from the use of DOIs to citing social networking sites. Figures and tables are updated throughout the book, including a return to the Manual ' s popular hyphenation table and new, selective listings of Unicode numbers for special characters.It offers new and expanded style guidelines in response to advancing technology and social change. It also includes new and revised content reflecting the latest publishing practices and electronic workflows and self-publishing. Citation recommendations, the glossary of problematic words and phrases, and the bibliography have all been updated and expanded.University of Chicago Press. Retrieved March 14, 2020. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.University of Chicago Press. 2010. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2011. University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Two of the styles are author-date systems--one using formatting conventions common in theKate Turabian adapted and modified CMS style for students inWith a few exceptions, which will. Doesn't seem to be among the Chicagos in the repository already. It is as requested by the journal Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, a Taylor and Francis publication. No bibliography is seen in articles. Simple footnotes, that appear as Notes at the end of the article, eg. Notes 1.

Gabriel Weimann, Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New Challenges (Washington, DC: USIP, 2006), p. 38. 2. Brian Michael Jenkins, International Terrorism: A New Kind of Warfare (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1974). Available at (accessed 6 October 2014); Alex Schmid, “Terrorism as Psychological Warfare,” Democracy and Security 1(2) (2005), p. 138. 3. Edna Erez, Gabriel Weimann, and A. Aaron Weisburd, “Jihad, Crime, and the Internet: Content Analysis of Jihadist Discussion Forums” (Washington, DC: USDOJ, 201 Is there another way. A bibliography is also usually required. This is placed at the end of the paper, and gives full publication details at the end of the paper for all the works cited in the notes. Please refer to the Chicago B tab if you are using that version of the style, or if you are unsure which style to use, check with your lecturer, tutor or demonstrator. Make sure that you click on the AUTHOR-DATE tab, so that you get the right version of the examples! Print version also available at: Central Library Main: Z253.CH32 2010 These are great time-savers, but they are only as good as the data you put in (they won't fix spelign erroars like this one for example)! Check out the options available here. Both books contain the same basic referencing systems. Do not underline or quote the title The traditional Chicago style paper uses footnotes or endnotes with a bibliography. However, here at Gallaudet, teachers, especially history instructors, prefer the footnotes method, not the parenthetical notation method. You should check with your instructor to find out which citation style is required. Endnotes are the reference information on a separate page at the end of the body of text, just before the bibliography page. To use footnotes or endnotes, you place a superscripted number (a half space above the line, like this 2 ) after the cited material.